These concepts give human choices to do good deeds in Olam Ha Zeh - "this world" - some of what Nietzsche called the eternal recurrence's "infinite weight".
Twice in Ecclesiastes, there are concise statements of an idea of recurrence: "What has been, is what will be [...]", "What is, has already been; what will be, has already been [...]", (1:9 and , resp.).
Historically, esoteric mystical Judaism has references to reincarnation of the soul.
However, their context is not as assertions of a tenet of time being cyclic or infinite; instead, they appear as just items in the long list of the book's reiterations of its theme that life is hevel (vain, futile).
The symbol of the ouroboros, the snake or dragon devouring its own tail, is the alchemical symbol par excellence of eternal recurrence.
The oscillatory universe model in physics offers an example of how the universe may cycle through the same events infinitely.
Arthur Eddington's concept "arrow of time", for example, discusses cosmology as proceeding up to a certain point, after which it undergoes a time reversal (which, as a consequence of T-symmetry, is thought to bring about a chaotic state due to entropy).
According to Heidegger, it is the burden imposed by the question of eternal recurrence—whether or not such a thing could possibly be true—that is so significant in modern thought: "The way Nietzsche here patterns the first communication of the thought of the 'greatest burden' [of eternal recurrence] makes it clear that this 'thought of thoughts' is at the same time 'the most burdensome thought.' " The thought of eternal recurrence appears in a few of his works, in particular §285 and §341 of The Gay Science and then in Thus Spoke Zarathustra.
The most complete treatment of the subject appears in the work entitled Notes on the Eternal Recurrence, a work which was published in 2007 alongside Søren Kierkegaard's own version of eternal return, which he calls 'repetition'.
Eternal return (also known as eternal recurrence) is a theory that the universe and all existence and energy has been recurring, and will continue to recur, in a self-similar form an infinite number of times across infinite time or space.
The theory is found in Indian philosophy With the decline of antiquity and the spread of Christianity, the theory fell into disuse in the Western world, with the exception of Friedrich Nietzsche, who connected the thought to many of his other concepts, including amor fati.
In Tantric Buddhism, a wheel of time concept known as the Kalachakra expresses the idea of an endless cycle of existence and knowledge.
Bhagavad Gita 8.17 - Knowing that [a] thousand eras constitute a day of Brahman, [and a] thousand eras complete a night, are the people who know day, [and] night.
The important distinction is that events don't repeat endlessly but souls take birth until they attain salvation.