Basic process of radiometric dating

Thus a few minerals such as the feldspars, quartz, and mica are the essential ingredients in granite and its near relatives.

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Many rocks have a more complex mineralogy, and in some the mineral particles are so minute that they can be identified only through specialized techniques.It is possible to identify an individual mineral in a specimen by examining and testing its physical properties.The geologist is responsible for the discovery of minerals (such as lead, chromium, nickel, and tin), oil, gas, and coal, which are the main economic resources of the Earth; for the application of knowledge of subsurface structures and geologic conditions to the building industry; and for the prevention of natural hazards or at least providing early warning of their occurrence.(For further examples, Moon, for example, provided scientists with firsthand information on lunar geology, including observations on such features as meteorite craters that are relatively rare on Earth.Geology, the fields of study concerned with the solid Earth.

Included are sciences such as mineralogy, geodesy, and stratigraphy.Geologic history provides a conceptual framework and overview of the evolution of the Earth.An early development of the subject was stratigraphy, the study of order and sequence in bedded sedimentary rocks.Paleontological research of the fossil record since the Cambrian Period has contributed much to the theory of evolution of life on Earth.Several disciplines of the geologic sciences have practical benefits for society.Geochemistry is the study of the composition of these different types of rocks.