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DICTIONARY OF THE FRENCH LANGUAGE CKOHW’H/) nv Tt IK /•'RE JVC If ACAiy EMV'^ BY A. Accordingly, I have endea- /oiired in this volume to register . oisire'^, huilre, Iwcn in common Latin we find ustium for ostium, ustiarius for ostiarius^ For the history of French oi, see § 63.

' Many new substantives have been formed from existing verbs, and for. The Latin language had the remarkable power of being able to make substan- tives out of its past participles : e. Besides these a poderiori proofs, furnished by history, there are other a priori proofs, provicled by philology, which enable us to declare at once that the word sought for is not of French origin, and point out to us its true source. But this e mute, which no\v is almost imperceptible in pronunciation, had, up to about the mitldle of the sixteenth century, a distinct and sufficiently marked sound (like the final 0 still heard in the pronunciation of the Provencal peasantry, as in franceso, musico, pos/o, for frangaise, 7 niisiqiu\ poste\ Palsgrave, the old English grammarian, in his Esciaircissemeni de la langue francoise, a.d. The vowels then are the fugitive and shifting part of a word ; the consonants its stable and resisting j)art. From oe' in the fifteenth century it passed to the sound oti/, transformed in the sixteenth by popular usage into oua. 61, give us droit, vicioire, pronounced as droat, 7 ^h'ioare, Still this pronunciation of oi as oa, which was that of the Parisian citizens (as Henri Estienne tells us), was not at once adopted by the court and the literary circles : they retained the one sound for more than two centuries. This loss of the v is to be found also in classical Latin, as in bourn for bovum* ; audii for audivi ; redii for redivi* ; amarunt for amaerunf', for amaverunt ; pluere for pluvere*.

These words have all entered in since the formation of the language : accordingly, they have not combined with it, nor have they received any of the characteristics which the French language impresses on those words which it assimilates. Hence the permutation of vowels is subject to less certain laws than that of consonants, as they pass more readily from one to another. Palsgrave, in his specimens of French pronunciation (a.u. INIoliere makes fun of the j)easantry for saying oua for oi ; and Louis XIV and Louis XV used to say tin oue'zeau (piseaii), la foue' {/ci ), ta lou/ (loi) : the oua sound did not triumph finally till the end of the eighteenth century. The Appendix Probi speaks of ais for avis; rius for rivus^ This loss of v^also takes place in French: as in pavonem, paon; pavorem, peur ; aviolus*, a'letd ; vivenda, viande ; clavare, clouer; avunculus, oncle ; oviele L, ouail/e ; pluvia, / caveola, y xevetto,*, luclie ; obliviosus, oublieux, § 142.

By what slow’ and almost insensible changes has the Latin word slipped into French ! Similarly, when the letters are divided from one another by a nasal : longe, mon- {a)chus, canon(i)cus, become logne, moc’nus, canoe nus, whence lohiy viouiy chaiioin. ) eu before gutturals and pro- paroxytons in ius, &c. The Latin u sound is represented in Merovingian Latin by o, a letter which certainly must ^avc differed from pure u, since the Appendix ad Probum (Keil, 199.

— tr ha 3 » l)een successively softened into dr, thence into rr ; u passes through o into ou ; and, as one can prove by the steps taken, the Latin word has never achieved more than one of these changes at a time, '^rhus •penetrating by means of a strict analysis into the innermost organisation of language, one secs that living words change * M. It should further -be noticed that in the two cases treated in this paragraph o stops at oi^ and does not descend to ni. u before all consonants (except gutturals and proparoxy- tons in ius, &c.) is strengthened to o in 15th cent., . 2) has ‘coluber non colober/ 7'hus we find cobetus for cubitus in the Formulae Andega- venses; jogum for jugum in the MS. This sound, certainly intermediate between ou and eii, was usually represented by //, then by Q,,/eve ; proba, preuve ; entyba, endive ’ As to chef horn caput, the permutation comes in another way.

; but more, piano must be of Italian stock, for in Italian only does pi turn into pi, witness plorare, piorare; r'' w*, pin ; plenus, pieno. Thus it is seen how the laws discovered by philology often enable us even to anticipate in many cases the inductions of the historical method. This distinction may seem crifling, but is really important : thus, for example, following these three differences of quantity, the Latin e is transformed into French in three different ways ; the short e becomes ie (ferus, ficr^ ; the long e becomes oi (avena, avoine) ; while the e long by position does not change (ferrum, fer). As to their accent ; — in every word of more syllables than one there is alwa) s one syllable on which the voice lays more stress than on the others. In some cases the atonic i drops to as bilancem, balance ; pigriti&y paresse y hirundo, aronde ; cylindrus, calandre. i usiiiilly remains in French: as nidum, rwe ; finem, yf;// vinum, vin ; primum, //'/« (in pr intemps); sic, si ; vita, 7 de ; pica, and so too in the suflixes ilis, il ; as Aprilis, avril ; icem = /Iv, as perdicem, perdrix ; radicem, rais (in raifort) : thus also the terminations icum, icam = /, ie^ as amieum, twii; vesica, vessie ; inum = in, as molinum, moulin ; ire = /'r, as audire, ouir ; itum = /, as maritum, mari; ivum - ^ as captivum, cheti/'^, § 70.

To enumerate according to the scale of importance the languages which have thus affected the French, we must begin witli the family of the Romance languages {Provcn9al, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese): these have furnished the most.. This raising of the voice is called the ‘ tonic accent,' or more simjdy, the ‘ accent.* Thus in the word rais Sn the accent is on the last syllable ; in raisonndblc, it is on the last but one. Sometimes i is ‘ consonnified ' into y, as pipionem, pipjonem ; alleviare, allevjare ; thence it passes into a soft g in French, as pipjonem, pigeon ; allevjare, al Jeger. Before a consonant followed by ius (eus) ia, ium, this i, whether long or short, usually remains : as filius, fil ; cilium, cil ; servitium, service ; — lineum, tinge; tibiam, tige ; simia, singe ; — familia, famille ; filia, fillc ; linea, ligne ; vinea, vigne. It was natural that the kindred languages should provide most: then comes the Teutonic family (German, English, Flemish). This syl- lable, on which the voice lays more stress than on the others, is called the ‘ accented * or ‘ tonic ' syllable : the others are unaccented, or, as the f Germans name them, ‘atonic*^. In a few cases, however, this i i)asses into ei (pronounced like e, as we have seen in § ei) : as consiliiun, conseil ; mirabilia, niervci Ue / nivea, ueige. Modern Greek, Hungarian, and tlie Sclavonic tongues (Polish, Russian) have given so Yncxx INTRODUCTION. The tonic accent gives to each word its proper physiognomy, its special character ; it has been well railed ‘ the soul of words.* In the French language the accent is always placed on one of two syllables; — on the last when the termina- tion is masculine ® (as chantedr, aime'r, fintr, recevrd) ; on the penulti- mate when the ter Tnination is feminine (as roide, p Srehe, voyage). ; tinea, teigne ; insignia, enseigne : and 4,his ci, pronounced as e, is met with in the latter form in vicia, vesce ; tristitia, irisiesse ; laetitia, Hesse ; -gigritm, par esse ‘ Sinus has stopped at sehi, and vitrum at verrej because these monosyllables instinctively keep all the strength they can. 6 continues unchanged in French in a very few cases ; that is, before the nasals: as sono, sonne ; bonus, bon ; sonum, son; homo, on: ^ this o^ which was sonorous (like the Italian 6) in the earliest French, becomes nasal (pti) from the twelfth century ^ § 76. But when the bird was taken from the nest, it was called fiiats (nidacem from nidus) and the weakness of young falcons gave the words mats, niaiserie, which express the simjdencss and awkwardness of young people who ‘ arc scarcely out of their nest.' Another term of falconry occurs in the phrase dessilb r les yeux (formerly de'cillcr). tatem, § 230 h] In a few instanca^hfinal t becomesy^ as in sitim, soif P'or d = t = f see § 122. INTcdial d remained in French up to about the middle of the eleventh century, and is found in French MSS.It was u«ual to sew up the eyes of falcons to tame them, an operation expressed by the word cilhr : when the bird was tame enough, they re-opened its eyes {de W/lrr) by cutting the thread which sewed together the eyelids ja\ e been formed. of that age; in the latter half of that century this d is Softened into a sound half sibilant, answermg to the two English ih sounds; and this, in certain French MSS. xci jus, JUS ; Justus, jusie ; a change also often expressed by soft which is the same letter as j in French: whence jacere, g/str / junicem, gemsse ; juniperum, genievre. ^Medial j retains the Latin i sound, and disappears when it immediately precedes the tonic vowel : jejunium, je-iin,jeun ; when, on the other hand, it follows the tonic vowel, it remains as / •: Troja, Troie ; raja, rate ; boja, O. loie^ houe'e ; majus, mai ; m Qjor, ma/re J bajulare, bat Her ; pejor, pejus, V. Initial v always continues, except in the important case of V ==g Uy as in Vasconia, Guascogii Cy Gascogne ; viscum, gut ; vadum, gui ; vespa, guepe ; vipera, gutvre.In the anarchical period of philo- o ry — the period between tlie sixteenth century and our day, during ' philology was little but a confused mass of erudite errors — \vo etymological Dictionaries were written, that of Manage in 1650, nd that of Ro(]uefort in 1829. ® This influence has been so strong that possum produced the O. pots, now puis, although there is no guttural in the word : the probability is that the word was treated as if it was poesum. ucil, then ocil whence comes the transformation into ceuil, ivil, as we have seen above, in § 76 . This mutual attraction between o and the gutturals is so strong, that it evei» affects th^m when they are separated by another consonant. General rdsumd of the history of the Latin o : — 1. / before gutturals; cu or ou before other consonants. o in position (Latin or French) becomes ui before gutturals; remains unchanged before other consonants. This vowel was pronounced like French ou by the Romans: they used to express the French u sound (= German ii ' Simihirly, we find in Inscriptions of the fifth century the form crex- entem ( — crecsentem) for crescentem. Consequently, we find a great confusion in the written language: u being taken to repi^«ent the new sound, it was necessary, in order to express the old classical sound of to introduce a new orthographic sign, ou.