Major depression leads to alterations in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, causing excessive release of cortisol which can lead to poor sleep quality.Nocturnal polyuria, excessive nighttime urination, can be very disturbing to sleep.
They also have an elevated metabolic rate, which does not occur in people who do not have insomnia but whose sleep is intentionally disrupted during a sleep study.Studies of brain metabolism using positron emission tomography (PET) scans indicate that people with insomnia have higher metabolic rates by night and by day.Like alcohol, benzodiazepines, such as alprazolam, clonazepam, lorazepam, and diazepam, are commonly used to treat insomnia in the short-term (both prescribed and self-medicated), but worsen sleep in the long-term.While benzodiazepines can put people to sleep (i.e., inhibit NREM stage 1 and 2 sleep), while asleep, the drugs disrupt sleep architecture: decreasing sleep time, delaying time to REM sleep, and decreasing deep slow-wave sleep (the most restorative part of sleep for both energy and mood).When the person stops drinking, the body tries to make up for lost time by producing more glutamine than it needs.
The increase in glutamine levels stimulates the brain while the drinker is trying to sleep, keeping him/her from reaching the deepest levels of sleep.
Keck Medicine of USC surgeons are able to offer a laparoscopic surgery option to certain patients who qualify with chronic pancreatitis, cystic tumors and islet cell tumors.
Our goal is to limit recovery time and scarring with this minimally invasive technique to aid in such procedures as Whipple operation, distal pancreatectomy and liver resection.
For patients in need of a liver, pancreas, biliary or other abdominal organ transplant, find out more on our Hepatobiliary, Pancreas and Abdominal Organ Transplant page.
Conditions that can result in insomnia include psychological stress, chronic pain, heart failure, hyperthyroidism, heartburn, restless leg syndrome, menopause, certain medications, and drugs such as caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol.
Sleep-onset insomnia is difficulty falling asleep at the beginning of the night, often a symptom of anxiety disorders.