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Some restrictions on educational freedom are discussed in censorship.

For a treatment of education as a discipline, including educational organization, teaching methods, and the functions and training of teachers, see teaching; pedagogy; and teacher education.

For a description of education in various specialized fields, see historiography; legal education; medical education; science, history of.

Education in primitive and early civilized cultures The term education can be applied to primitive cultures only in the sense of enculturation, which is the process of cultural transmission.

A primitive person, whose culture is the totality of his universe, has a relatively fixed sense of cultural continuity and timelessness.

The purpose of primitive education is thus to guide children to becoming good members of their tribe or band.

There is a marked emphasis upon training for citizenship, because primitive people are highly concerned with the growth of individuals as tribal members and the thorough comprehension of their way of life during passage from prepuberty to postpuberty.

Children actually participate in the social processes of adult activities, and their participatory learning is based upon what the American anthropologist Margaret Mead called empathy, identification, and imitation.

Primitive children, before reaching puberty, learn by doing and observing basic technical practices.

The teaching personnel may consist of fully initiated men, often unknown to the initiate though they are his relatives in other clans.

The initiation may begin with the initiate being abruptly separated from his familial group and sent to a secluded camp where he joins other initiates.

The magnitude of change needed makes clear that closing the economic gap with developed countries will require major structural changes in schooling institutions. In this sense, it is equivalent to what social scientists term socialization or enculturation.