In the warm-water tail-withdrawal assay at both 50 °C and 55 °C, morphine was 2–3 times more potent in males than females.
In contrast, mu-opioid receptor number and the binding affinity of the mu-opioid agonists morphine and DAMGO in membranes from whole brain, cortex, thalamus, and spinal cord were not different between males and females.
Similarly, morphine and DAMGO stimulation of G protein, determined using GTPase and [S]GTPγS binding assays, did not show a difference between the sexes.The long-lasting mu-opioid receptor antagonist methocinnamox (0.32 mg/kg), given 24 h prior to morphine, reduced mu-opioid receptor number by approximately 50% in thalamic and spinal cord tissue from female and male rats and reduced the antinociceptive potency of morphine.From 1992 through 1996, Mokhtar made numerous statements on the internet in support of Hamas and suicide bombings.Prior to the September 11 attacks, Mokhtar served as a web designer for what was then the main website raising funds and recruiting fighters for al-Qaeda and the Taliban, ’ MAS was founded in 1993 by a group of individuals from the Muslim Brotherhood, which included the future global leader of the Brotherhood, Mohammed Mahdi Akef.
The current National Executive Director of MAS is Mazen Mokhtar.
Marzook is currently residing in Egypt as second in command of Hamas.
In 20, CAIR was named by the US Justice Department a co-conspirator for two federal trials dealing with the financing of millions of dollars to Hamas.
Pretreatment of male rats with 0.32 mg/kg methocinnamox reduced the antinociceptive potency of morphine to that observed in female rats expressing a full complement of mu-opioid receptors.
However, with increasing pretreatment doses of methocinnamox, the maximal antinociceptive effect of morphine was decreased in females but not males.
The results suggest that pathways downstream of the mu-opioid receptor and G protein are more efficient in male rats than in female rats such that there is a larger receptor reserve for morphine-mediated antinociception.