The Carlisle Indian Industrial School, founded by the US Army officer Richard Henry Pratt in 1879 at a former military installation, became a model for others established by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA).
Pratt said in a speech in 1892, "A great general has said that the only good Indian is a dead one.
This was either a school for girls, or an early co-ed school.
Native American boarding schools, also known as Indian Residential Schools were established in the United States during the late 19th and mid 20th centuries with a primary objective of assimilating Native American children and youth into Euro-American culture, while at the same time providing a basic education in Euro-American subject matters.These boarding schools were first established by Christian missionaries of various denominations, who often started schools on reservations, especially in the lightly populated areas of the West.Maryland and the recently established school sent two boys to St.Omer who yielded in abilities to few Europeans, when competing for the honour of being first in their class.I rejoice, brothers, to hear you propose to become cultivators of the earth for the maintenance of your families.
Be assured you will support them better and with less labor, by raising stock and bread, and by spinning and weaving clothes, than by hunting.
Children were typically immersed in European-American culture through forced changes that removed indigenous cultural signifiers.
These methods included being forced to have European-American style haircuts, being forbidden to speak their Indigenous languages, and having their real names replaced by European names to both "civilize" and "Christianize" them.
In 1665, Caleb Cheeshahteaumuck, "from the Wampanoag..graduate from Harvard, the first Indian to do so in the colonial period".
In early years, other Indian schools were created by local communities, as with the Indian school in Hanover, New Hampshire in 1769, which gradually developed into Dartmouth College.
The Civilization Fund Act of 1819 promoted this civilization policy by providing funding to societies (mostly religious) who worked on Native American education, often at schools established in or near Native American communities.