The remaining Chinese settlers were exiled to Sri Lanka.In 1795, the Netherlands were invaded and occupied by France, and on March 17, 1798, the Batavian Republic, a satellite state of France, took over both VOC debts and assets.
The old Batavia which were planned in Dutch planning and canal were not doing so well, in fact the canal itself became breeding ground for mosquitoes.
The city centre became unhealthy and filthy and the city were nicknamed "The Cemetry of the Europeans, this is also the reason why the city grew more in land.
The slaves were mostly engaged to undertake housework, while working and living conditions were generally reasonable. Laws were enacted that protected slaves against overly-cruel actions from their masters; for example, Christian slaves were given freedom after the death of their masters, while some slaves were allowed to own a store and made money to buy their freedom.
Sometimes, slaves fled and established gangs that would roam throughout the area.
But all of this comes at a cost: the city has been struggling very hard to keep up with the urban growth.
Major roads are packed up during rush hours, while the public transportation system has been unable to alleviate that much traffic.
In 1740, Chinese settlers rebelled against the Dutch.
The rebellion was put down harshly with the massacre of thousands of Chinese settlers.
By the end of the VOC rule of Batavia, the population of Batavia had reached one million.
The name Jakarta was adopted as a short form of Jayakarta when the city was taken over by the Japanese in 1942.
After the second world war, the Indonesian declared their independence at Koningsplein which is today's Merdeka Square.