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The Kurdish languages belong to the northwestern sub‑group of the Iranian languages, which in turn belongs to the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European family.

A special case are the Kurdish populations in the Transcaucasus and Central Asia, displaced there mostly in the time of the Russian Empire, who underwent independent developments for more than a century and have developed an ethnic identity in their own right. and ruled with 21 kings until defeated by the Sumerian king Utu-hengal.

"The land of Karda" is mentioned on a Sumerian clay-tablet dated to the 3rd millennium B. This land was inhabited by "the people of Su" who dwelt in the southern regions of Lake Van; The philological connection between "Kurd" and "Karda" is uncertain but the relationship is considered possible. Books from the early Islamic era, including those containing legends such as the Shahnameh and the Middle Persian Kar-Namag i Ardashir i Pabagan, and other early Islamic sources provide early attestation of the name Kurd.

However, there are significant Kurdish diaspora communities in the cities of western Turkey, in particular Istanbul.

A recent Kurdish diaspora has also developed in Western countries, primarily in Germany.

After a long and hard-fought siege, Shapur II breached the walls, conquered the city and massacred all its defenders.

Thereafter he had the strategically located city repaired, provisioned and garrisoned with his best troops.and the fact that this usage reflects the sense of ethnic identity and unity of the Kurds." The number of Kurds living in Southwest Asia is estimated at close to 30 million, with another one or two million living in diaspora.Kurds comprise anywhere from 18% to 20% of the population in Turkey, Kurds form regional majorities in all four of these countries, viz.Qarti or Qartas, who were originally settled on the mountains north of Mesopotamia, are considered as a probable ancestor of the Kurds. During the Sassanid era, in Kar-Namag i Ardashir i Pabagan, a short prose work written in Middle Persian, Ardashir I is depicted as having battled the Kurds and their leader, Madig.Akkadians were attacked by nomads coming through Qartas territory at the end of 3rd millennium B. After initially sustaining a heavy defeat, Ardashir I was successful in subjugating the Kurds.in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).