For thousands of years, early peoples hunted and gathered food in the rich valleys and highlands of what we now know as Ethiopia.The name is from ancient Greek words meaning "the land of people with burnt faces." It was an area of constant population movement.Ethiopia is situated on the eastern "horn" of the African continent.
Peoples of the vast rolling highland plateau, which was known as Abyssinia, found rich volcanic soils for growing their crops.
The substantial harvests permitted large groups of people to live together.
With so many people, complex political organizations formed. They were something like the feudal systems of the European Middle Ages.
Until the nineteenth century, these independent kingdoms ruled the highlands.
In 1974 in Ethiopia, Donald Johanson (1943–) of Cleveland, Ohio, made an important discovery.
He and his team of anthropologists and archaeologists found the bones of an ancient female ancestor of the human race.
Many found Ethiopia comfortable, and they too settled among and mixed with the peoples from other lands.
A major factor in this movement and settlement was trade.
Traders bought and sold foods and spices, salt bars (used as money), gold and precious stones, domestic animals, wild animal skins—and slaves.
Goods found in one area were wanted in other areas.
This promoted the migration of traders and their families and the growth of market towns.