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(c) Meaningful Conditions of Limited Membership This Section discusses coverage, timeliness, and other threshold issues to be considered when a charge is first filed under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA), the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), This Section does not address defenses that a respondent may raise to defeat a charge of discrimination that satisfies the threshold requirements, such as the bona fide occupational qualification defense or substantive defenses to benefits claims under the ADEA.

The investigator should consult with the legal unit if applicable case law differs from the Commission's position on a particular issue.

A charge filed with the Commission must present a claim that is cognizable under the laws enforced by the Commission.

The EEO statutes prohibit discrimination in labor organization practices, including referrals.

In addition, a labor organization is prohibited from refusing to bring a grievance because of an individual's protected status, Thus, if two individuals are sexually harassed while participating in the respondent's training program but only one of them is the respondent's employee, they can both file a Title VII charge against the respondent.

Thus, for example, the statute protects Whites, African-Americans, and Asians from race and color discrimination; men and women from sex discrimination; Iranians, Cubans, and Americans from national origin discrimination; and Christians, Jews, Muslims, and atheists from religious discrimination.

The following sections describe some specific kinds of charges that can be raised under the Title VII bases.Discrimination in training programs might also constitute discrimination in hiring if participation in the program is required prior to employment, or regularly leads to employment.Title VII, the ADEA, and the ADA prohibit discrimination based on race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, or disability in advertisements and recruitment related to employment, referral for employment, or apprenticeships or other training.For a more detailed discussion of compensation discrimination covered by the EPA, refer to 29 C. For detailed discussion of how to assess coverage, refer to the Commission's "Instructions to EEOC Field Offices on Analyzing ADA Charges After Supreme Court Decisions Addressing 'Disability' and 'Qualified'" (1999); "Regulations to Implement the Equal Employment Provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act," 29 C. An individual is protected against retaliation for participation in the charge process, however, regardless of the validity or reasonableness of the original allegation of discrimination.An individual need not establish a violation of the underlying statute to be afforded protection from retaliation.After it has extended a conditional offer, the entity may ask disability-related questions, or require a medical examination as long as it does so of all entering employees in the same job category, regardless of disability.