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A public domain book is one that was never subject to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. All gases, on account of the absence of any cohesive- ness between their particles, expand alike, the pressure being the same for equal additions of heat; the rate of expansion being equal and uniform at all degrees of temperature ; they expand rather more than one-third their volume on being raised from the temperature at which ice melts to that at which water boils at the ordinary atmospheric pressure.

Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Theexpansion of gases is more fully treated of in Chap, III. The two prevailing opinions with regard to the nature of heat, are the theory of emission, and the theory of undulation. According to the first theory, heat is a subtle imponder- able fluid, which surrotinds the molecules of bodies and which can pass from one body to another. In English gn Decagramme = 'S4'3*J Hectogramme= 1543'2U Kilt^ramme = 15432-33 Myti(^amme= 154323'48J Weights a^vd Measures r In English In Englisii In Ecgli A pol«= In Ei^Ui^ .19-6033o-i the balloon will be much more buoyant i( filled with il| thmi if ii Ued with cod-gas. Prepare some carbon dioxide and let the exit tilh of Ibe apparatus dip inio a dry glass vessel (fig.

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Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. The temperature of a body can be increased or diminished. Ic is therefore ;cessary in the construction of a barometer, in order to have t accurate, to have not only the mercury pure and free from -, but the tube must also be free from air and moisture ; to ibtain this result, a small quantity of pure mercury is placed in le tube and boiled for some time.

We encourage the use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. If two bodies of different temperatures are brought together, the one containing the most sensible heat— in other words, having the highest temperature — will lose heat, which the body with the lower temperatuit will absorb. = 6i O27-051( Myriolilre, or decaslere .....= 610270-5151 I cubic inch . It is then allowed to cool, id a further quantity previously warmed, added, which is loiled, and so on, until the tube is quite full ; in this manner e moisture and the air which adhere to the sides of the tube Lss off with the mercurial vapour. That portion of the upper part of the tube which is ifilled with mercury is the nearest approach to a perfect kcuuoi which can be procured by act, for on lowering the tube 72 FUNDAif ENTAL Pjf/. ES Of CHEMISTRY deep enough into the cistern of mercury, the whole tube ' become completely filled with the mercury ; and on elevat the tube in the cistern the mercurj' again sinks in the tut The vacuum thus obtained is termed the Torricellian vacui from its being firet observed in 1663 by Torricelli, a pupii Galileo.

Google Book Search helps readers discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. To measure the correct tempe- 'eof bodies, we have recourse to the physical action of heat bodies. Expansions and ttiactions have been adopted, as being the easiest to observe. Mercury fills the leg A B, which is closed at the top A, and partially fills the leg S.

You can search through the full text of this book on the web at | //books .google .com/I CHEMISTRY PRACTICALLY TAUGHT NEW EDITION OF WATTSS DICTIONARY OF CHEMISTRY. L heat also produces electrical phenomena in bodies, on ich very delicate methods of observing temperatures have 1 based. Instruments termed thermometers (from flsp/iof, hot, pov, a measure) are employed to measure temperatures up [bout 6oo'' F. t^\, ■ 'Vr.r^'^f^ mf^^e weight I Ae cabic centttnttre of water at 39'2° F, in vtuuo. = 3937079 Decametre = 3937079* Hectometre = • 3937-07900 Kilometre. When the atmosphere commum'cates freely with the tube D C, the surface of the mercury in S, being pressed by its full force, sustains all the mercury which the tube B A this tube consequently remains completely filled ; but when the pipe D C S is put in communication with the exhausted receiver, the surface of the mercury in S being acted upon only by the pressure of the rarefied air in the receiver, the weight of the higher column in B A will predominate, and the will fall in it, until the difference of the levels in the two 82 Fc MDAMENTAL Pr IXCIPLES OF CHEMISTRY legs shall be equal to the pressure of the rare6ed air in the receiver.' ' 201.

Usage guidelines Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. ' A rapid vibratory motion of this ether produces heat, just as sound is produced by a vibratory motion of atmospheric air, and the 34 Fundamental Principles of Chemistry transference of heat from one body to another is effected by the intervention of this ether.' Heat, according to this view, is not a substance, hut a condition of matter, and a condition which can be transferred from one body to another ; it is, in short, looked upon as a fortn of -motion. Prove tkl the gas has been really transferred firom the one vessel to the other by introducing a lighted candle lirsl into the vessel originally containing it [in which the candle ought now lo bum), and then into the one which ought nt ' the experiment has been properly performed, lo conla and in which the candle ought not now to burn.

Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians. 84, The general effects of heat we have already noticed; here we will make one remark before going further into the subject : — whenever, as in the case of heat, we have to speak of any agent whose nature is unknown, the expressions and allusions we employ in regard to it must necessarily possess a degree of vagueness ; and to those students who require exact definitions, they must appear unsatisfactory. If gnat care be observed in the experiment, it may be tiansferred from one vessel to Ibe other three or four limes.Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. This vagueness is further increased if different views have prevailed at different times as to the nature of the agent, because the terms which have been employed under one theory are frequently retained when other and totally different views prevail. Thi periment shows the great density of the gas : it also sbms the incapahihty of the gas to support the combus Ii Dn ' " candle, 69.We also ask that you: Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes. These few general observations on the terms employed we have thought it necessary to make, in order to show the student that the terms which may appear vague and unsatisfactory to him are equally so to all who study the subject. The term heat we apply to the agent ; the term temperature we apply to that portion of heat in a body which we can perceive by the senses. Fill a wide and deep glass jar half-Full of carbon dioxide, the uppel half being filled with atmospheric air ; fill a collodion balloon mtli hydrogen and air in aucb proportions that the balloon will just ^nk in ili when so prepared, let the balloon sink into tbe jar ; as soon as it reachet the uppermost layer of ibe oxide of carbon it will rebound as if it hn J touched a solid body ; it will linolly tloat quietly upon it, and it is en to see the balloon suspended midway in the jar, apparently testing opon ' For making soap-bubbles the following is the best method for making flie soap solution : put into a qimrt bottle some of the best white Castile soap that sustains or makes the mercury in the tube stand about ches above the level of that in the cistern, for if, instead of having the upper end of the tube herme- tically sealed, it were closed by means of a stopcock, and that it was opened when the mercury was stand- in the tube, the mercury would instantly sink in tube to the same level as that in the cistern ; iroving that it was the pressure of the air upon the lercury in the cistern that supported the mercury 173. 37 is called le cistern barometer ; there are other forms of the lercurial barometer, but they all depend on the same ' "^' "' irinclple, viz. There e barometers, as the aneroid, without any liquid ; but they :ewise depend on the pressure of the air. The space above the column of mercury must be itirely free from air and moisture, for if present, they would ixercise a pressure on the mercury in the tube which would mnteract, to a greater or less extent according to their amount, ,e pressure of the air on the mercury in the cistern, and thus nder the barometer more or less inaccurate. Asslsianl- Proftssur of Physio Logy fli Univcraily College, Loiid QD. are equal : if then the temperature of water either ses above or sinks below 4° C. On freezing e expansion is so great and sudden that the force exerted is pormous ; thick iron shells, filled with water and their fuse- |oles securely plugged, when they have been exposed to the 'ere cold of a Canadian winter night, have been found split the morning. (39-2° F.) ; at this temperature it attains its greatest density, for on further cooling it begins to expand, and jt Expansion and Contraction 31 jefore it begins lo freeze, its volume at that temperature and t 9° C. The freezing of water in the joints and crevices of cks acts as a disintegrator and pulveriser even of the hardest f them, thus facilitating the chemical action of the carbon ioxide in the air in converting rocks into fruitful soil.